Operating system security and protection 2020
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explain the operating system,
define application software explain security
software and its importance.
Introduction to Operating System (Operating system security and protection )
Operating system definition
An OS may be a sort of system software that is an interface between programs or applications and hardware . It manages hardware and software resources to supply services to the user, except the firmware like ROM BIOS. Apart from giving an interface to the user, it performs tasks like memory management, process management, file management, and controlling input/output devices(I/O). The following figure shows a block diagram of a computer with respect to the operating system:
The operating system architecture or framework is broadly classified into kernel mode and user mode as shown in the following figure:
A kernel is the core of the operating system and is the first program that gets loaded in the computer system at startup. It then supports the start-up process and handles the hardware. In kernel mode, CPU instructions are executed and memory is referenced for storing data. A crash of kernel stops the functioning of the computer system. the CPU instruction is the codes or programs running in the user mode has no direct access to the hardware or memory. They request the system of an application programming interface (APIs) to access these. Because of a layer of system API, user mode is recoverable just in case a crash happens. Most of the codes running within the computer will execute within the user mode.
- Provides a user interface, for example, graphical user interface (GUI) and command line(text-based)
- Handle system resources such as computer’s memory and sharing of the CPU time by various applications or peripheral devices
- Keeps track of primary memory usage such as, being used by whom, what parts are not in use
- Does priority-wise memory allocation for a process request in case of multiple programs being executed
- De-allocates the memory when a process no longer needs it or has been terminated
- Keeps track of processor and status of the process with the help of a program known as a traffic controller
- allocates the processor (CPU) to a process
- De-allocates the processor when a process is no longer required
- keeps track of all devices with the help of a program known as the I/O controller
- Decides which process gets the devices when and for how much time
- Allocates the devices in an efficient way
- De-allocates devices
- Keeps track of information, location, uses and status and also maintains the file system
- Enables the use of passwords to prevent unauthorized access to data or the system
System performance management
- Manages system performance such as recording delays between a request for a service and response from the system
- Assigns software such as, compilers, interpreters, assemblers and other software to the computer systems, other software, and users
- Enables network communication by establishing a connection between network devices and the computer or any other program
- Provides debugging and error detecting aids and gives appropriate error messages
Windows (Operating system security and protection)
Windows is an OS that is owned by Microsoft. It is different from any open-source software in the sense that only Microsoft can make changes to the code. It can be installed on different kinds of computers, by various manufacturers, giving a wide range of choice for hardware to the user. The latest version Windows is 10 which includes touchscreen support. This combines the usability of a touchscreen tablet and the power of a desktop/ laptop computer. It also includes the “Play To” and “Remote Media Streaming,” Features that allow a user to play media from the computer on another device. These Features also allow the user to access media when faraway from his/ her computer.
The steps that should be performed in order to install the windows operating system on a computer are shown in the following figure:
Linux is free and open-source software. The main component of the Linux kernel.
The user interface is called a shell, it may be a command-line interface(CLI) or a GUI. for any type of desktop system, the default mode is usually GUI. The CLI is also available either through a terminal emulator Windows or an independent virtual console.
Installing, updating or removing software in Linux is usually done through the use of package managers such as:
- Synaptic Package Manager
- package kit
- yum extender
Most of the major Linux distributions contain extensive repositories. However, all the software that can run on Linux are not available from these official repositories. Users can :
- download the pre-compiled packages from websites directly
- install the package from unofficial repositories or
- compile the source code by themselves.
Mac OS which was known as Mac OS X earlier is a Unix- based graphical OS developed by Apple Inc and is designed to be run only on Apple’s Macintosh computers. After Microsoft Windows, Mac OS is the second most widely used desktop OS. In the earlier years, Mac OS had a negligible number of types of spyware and malware which have affected the windows users. The usage of Mac OS is smaller compared to windows. Apple regularly releases security updates for Mac OS. The latest version of Mac OS 10.12 Sierra.
Anybody can install Mac OS over any earlier version, without removing the data. The following figure lists the steps to reinstall the Mac OS:
Application Software( application software definition)
Application software is the end-user program designed to create documents and spreadsheets; do online research and online business, and play online games. The two-basic application software is:
- Microsoft office (MS-office)
- Web Browsers
MS-Office is a suite of computer programs developed by Microsoft. As it is meant for all users, it offers different versions that cater specifically to students, home users, and business users. All the programs are compatible with both, Windows and Macintosh.
Most popular office products
Some of the most popular and universally used MS office applications are:
- Microsoft word: Allows users to type text and add images to a document.
- Microsoft Excel: Allows users to enter data into a spreadsheet and create calculations and graphs.
- Microsoft Powerpoint: Allows users to add text, pictures, and media and create slideshows and presentations.
- Microsoft Outlook: Allows users to send and receive email .
- Microsoft Access: Allows users to store data over many tables.
A web browser is used to retrieve and go through information resources available on the world wide web(www).
It is a software application that provides a way to look at and interact with the information on the web. the program that uses Hypertext Transfer Protocol(HTTP) for making requests to the webserver through the internet on behalf of the user of the browser.
Configuring a web browser
The web browser can be customized by configuring it with the help of a settings menu on the browser. It can be configured for managing privacy, network connection settings, the appearance of the browser, download location, and user accounts by going to ‘show Advanced Settings’.
And provide privacy settings of a browser that helps the user to manage the cache and cookies.
Security Software (Operating system security and protection)
The security of a computer depends on the proper working of various technologies. An OS provides access to the resources available to the software which are running on the system and also to the external devices such as network through the kernel. The OS contains various built-in tools, such as antivirus utilities and firewall set up, for protecting the system
some of the security software are as discussed below:
A firewall is a utility software which monitors sending and receiving of files and blocks unauthorized network. It enables network security as it monitors incoming and outgoing network traffic thereby facilitating controlled data access between the networks.
Antivirus is also known as anti-malware software. antivirus is a set of programs that are used to prevent, detect and remove software viruses, worms, adware, trojans and so on. This software must be up-to-date as a system without an antivirus is often infected within a couple of minutes of being connected to the web.
Spyware is a malware that collects a user’s personal information such as credit card and browsing history and passes it to a third party without the user’s knowledge. An anti-spyware is a useful program that removes such malware. And also remove unwanted programs that could be present on the computer, to protect the user’s personal information. Avast anti-spyware is a popular software to remove malware.
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