Networking in computer 2020 covering all topics
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Networking in computer
What is a Network?
A network is an interconnection of a computer group that can communicate and shares resources such as hard disks and printers. The group of computers or a group of other devices that are connected by some type of transmission media. The initial idea of a network was perceived by the department of defense(DOD) in the USA for the purpose of security
Some advantages of networks are:
- Sharing of information across different systems(connected in a network)
- Optimum utilization of hardware resources
- Centralization of data management
Based on the physical connectivity or distance, that a network can span, the network is classified into different types
Types of Networks( Networking in a computer)
The following figure shows the different types of networks used for sharing information:
LAN(Local Area Network)
It is the interconnection of computers that share information over relatively small distances such as office building, residence, school premises, and locality.
The following image shows the interconnection of computers in LAN:
MAN(Metropolitan Area Network)
It is the interconnection of users with computer resources in a region larger than that covered by LAN but it is smaller than the area covered by a wide area network(WAN).
The following image shows the interconnection of users using MAN:
WAN(wide area network)
WAN is used to connect devices over much larger distances than LAN. It is established by connecting LANs using routers. It is not limited to a single person or organization. for example- The internet is a network of networks that is spread across the globe for exchange of information and services.
The following image shows the connectivity of users using WAN:
Networking architecture is a structural model that specifies the types, layout, and components of a network along with data format, different protocols, and services providers. The following figure shows the types of network architecture:
Peer-to -Peer Network Architecture
Peer to Peer is a type of network architecture in which all the computers are connected to the network which has similar capabilities to use the resources that are available on it. There is no central server in this architecture. Peer to peer networks are usually simple but they do not offer the same performance in case of heavy network loads.
The following image shows a peer to peer network architecture:
CLIENT-SERVER NETWORK ARCHITECTURE
Client-server is a type of network architecture in which each computer on the network is either a client or a server. The following image shows a client-server network architecture:
A computer that holds programs, network operating systems, and the shared files is called a server. Servers are computers dedicated to managing disk drives(files servers), printers(print servers) or network traffic (network servers). They provide access to the network resources to all the devices which are using the network. different kinds of servers are file servers, communication servers, print servers, database servers, mail servers, fax servers and so on.
The following figure lists some types of servers along with their description:
- It provides data such as data files, e-mail, and printer access programs, which are shared among various clients in the network.
- It has large hard disks that all users in the network share.
- Application software and shared data reside in this server.
- It acts as a buffer for these print jobs sent by the users to the printers or centralized printers.
- It grants the outside users access to the network through a telephone line.
- It provides electronic mails(e-mails) to users of the network.
Client computers access the network and use various shared resources in the network. By which they reply on servers for resources, such as files, devices, and even processing power. They receive services from the servers as per their request.
Network devices are components which are used to connect computers and other electronic devices to share resources such as printers, fax machines, database and so on. The functions of network devices, working together, are as follows:
- Controlling traffic: Network devices filter and isolate the data traffic.
- Providing connectively: Using various network protocols, network devices connect different types of networks.
- Addressing as per hierarchy: These devices segment the network and deliver data to the right destination using the destination address.
The following figure enlists devices used in networking:
A switch, in a computer network , connects other devices electrically and logically . It enables the communication between networking devices by plugging data cables into them . It transmits network packets to their assigned destination and thus manages the flow of data in the networking. Each networked device is identified by its network address, which allows the switch to regulate traffic and increase the efficiency of the network.
When an ethernet switch replaces a hub, the scope of collision is reduced as the single large collision domain of the hub is split into smaller parts and leads to an increase in the potential throughput. A switch works on the second layer of the open system interconnection(OSI) model.
IP routing is the process of sending packets from a host on one network to another host on another remote network. This process is done by routers. They examine the destination IP address of a packet, which determine the next-hop address and then forward the packet.
They use routing tables to determine the next-hop address to which the packet should be forwarded.
Consider the following image which is representing IP routing:
Host A wants to communicate with host B but host B is on another network. Host A is configured to send all packets bound for remote networks to router R1. Router R1 receives the packets, examines the destination IP address and then forwards the packet to the outgoing interface associated with the destination network.
A hub, also known as a network hub, is a hardware network device that connects ethernet devices together, making them a single network. A signal is introduced at the input ports of the hub and it appears at every output port except the original one. Hub can operate at the physical layer of the OSI model. A hub lacks the intelligence of determining where the information has to be sent as it has no routing table unlike a switch and a router. Hub broadcasts information across each connection (multiple ports), which increases risk issues. However, switch is in demand as it is of the same cost as a hub and a router and has a better transmission of information.
A network bridge can help to join two separate computer networks together to enable communication between them. Bridge devices are used with LANs to extend their reach and cover larger physical areas. They inspect incoming network traffic and determine whether to forward or discard it according to its intended destination. for example-An Ethernet bridge inspects each incoming Ethernet frame which includes the source-destination MAC addresses and sometimes the frame size in making individual forwarding decisions. These devices operate at the data link layer (Layer 2) of the OSI model.
A gateway acts as an interface between dissimilar networks with different protocols translating one data format to another. And responsible for communication and sending data back and forth. Gateway operates at any network layer of the OSI model. Gateway is nodes that connect different networks. A gateway node is a computer that controls traffic among company networks which provides a connection to the internet users
Gateway is nodes that connect different networks. A gateway node is a computer that controls traffic among company networks and provides a connection to the internet users.
A repeater is a networking device that is used in a transmission system to regenerate distorted signals. It receives the signal and regenerates it to transmit it over long distances so that it can be received on the other side. It regenerates the network signals so that they can travel longer distances on the network.
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